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Covid-19 / SARS-Cov2 - naučne/medicinske informacije i analize

Eddard

Dragi forumaši, molimo vas da u vreme ove krize ostanemo prisebni i racionalni i da pisanjem na ovoj temi ne dođemo u situaciju da naudimo nekome. Stoga:

 

- nemojte davati savete za uzimanje lekova i bilo kakvu terapiju, čak i ako ste zdravstveni radnik - jedini ispravni put za sve one koji eventualno osećaju simptome je da se jave svom lekaru ili na neki od telefonskih brojeva koji su za to predviđeni.

- takođe - ne uzimajte lekove napamet! Ni one proverene, ni one potencijalne - obratite se svom lekaru!

- nemojte prenositi neproverene informacije koje bi mogle nekoga da dovedu u zabludu i eventualno mu načine štetu. Znamo da je u moru informacija po pitanju ove situacije jako teško isfiltrirati one koje su lažne, pogrešne ili zlonamerne, ali potrudite se - radi se o zdravlju svih nas. Pokušajte da informacije sa kojekakvih obskurnih sajtova i sumnjivih izvora ne prenosite. Ili ih prvo proverite pre nego što ih prenesete.

- potrudite se da ne dižete paniku svojim postovima - ostanimo mirni i racionalni.

 

Budimo dostojanstveni u ovoj krizi, ovakve situacije su ogledalo svih nas. 

Hvala na razumevanju.

 

Vaš tim Vox92

Message added by Eddard

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Mali komentar na kraju o eventualnom postojecem imunitetu na covid-19:

 

Spoiler

Hennig: Do you think it is conceivable that we could also experience a surprising cross immunity like that in connection with H1N1 with the corona virus? We have already mentioned that. Or is there any other blind spot that science still has? Is there hope?

Drosten: I think the most important blind spot is this question of background immunity. It is the case that certain studies of cellular immunity suggest that people who have never had contact with the SARS-2 virus nevertheless show at least one reactivity of their T memory cells in laboratory tests. So you can see that they have, albeit weakly developed, yet demonstrably an immune memory against a virus that they never got to know.

Hennig: In other words, cells that attack the virus, so to speak.

Drosten: Yes, exactly. This has to be because there is a certain relationship in the protein properties of this new virus with the four circulating common cold coronaviruses. These sites can also be found in the proteome of these viruses. If you compare them with each other, there are places that not only have similarities with each other, but also fit well with the immune cells. We say these are T cell epitopes. These are certain areas in the protein structure that are particularly well suited to be recognized and presented by such T cells.

Hennig: That is, a prospect that gives hope at the end. Maybe first up to here.

u sustini: primetili su da postoji neka reakcija kod nekih ljudi, ispitivanja su u toku (nada poslednja umire :classic_biggrin: )

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jos jedan zanimljiv deo o smrtnosti covid-19 (da li je i sta tacno izazvalo smrt)

 

Quote

Hennig: Again and again the debate about the question about the virus flares up: How close is the relationship between the number of people who died in a region and the virus? So are the numbers overestimated or underestimated? Or is the cause of death actually related to SARS-2 infection? An epidemiological study from Italy could bring a little light into the dark. It compiles the figures and the Charité was also involved. It's about Nembro, a badly affected community in the Lombardy province of Bergamo, in northern Italy, with a good 11,000 inhabitants. There the numbers of deaths were compared over a period of eight years. One result is that significantly more people died there than in statistical terms in a whole year by mid-April. If we at least briefly get into this study, one must first say that we are talking about what it literally means "all-cause mortality" - these are deaths with very different causes.

 

rad: https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1835

 

Spoiler

Drosten: Yes, exactly, these are the statistics of the deceased, no matter what someone died from. What we shed light on is this concept of over-mortality. In the past, we have discussed a first overview that was published in newspapers, where the fast-reporting countries, for example, have already published their mortality for March. You can see that there is a very clear level of mortality in all of these countries. In some cases, this was not yet precisely quantified. Then it went down again because the lockdown measures came into force and then the incidence decreased, so the disease increasingly disappeared or became less popular (manje zastupljeno u narodu). We have to be clear about that.
We have clearly seen that there is an over-mortality effect and it is extremely much higher than the actually reported cases of deaths due to SARS-2 infection. There are also cases that have never been diagnosed that have not had a PCR done - for example, someone who died at home. There are also other causes of death that are indirectly related to this disease - for example, when hospital beds are not available for other diseases or when people do not go to hospital for fear of infection. All of these effects are added.

There is a study here that was done in a place in Italy that has 11,500 inhabitants. The normal mortality there is ten people out of 1000, so ten out of 1000 people die each year. In previous years that was about 21 per 1000 - normally ten per 1000, maximum 21. And in March there were 155 deaths in this place, depending on how you want to calculate it, about 15- times as much as normal deceased. This is an estimate based on a small place. There will be deviations from this factor in other places. 15 times - at least you can imagine that as a number. What if you multiplied this normal mortality by 15? This means that in principle everyone knows directly or at least indirectly someone who has died from this disease.

Hennig: You had already looked at the accompanying effects that people who have other illnesses may not even go to the hospital or be treated. Only about half of the deaths, one has to say, were confirmed coronavirus infections.

Drosten: There were 85 confirmed cases of these recorded in time. There were also a few cases from April. All in all, if I add that up in my head, there are 178, of which 85 have been laboratory confirmed.

Hennig: An often repeated argument when we look at the Italian figures is that the health system there was broken. The conditions in the clinics are very different than in Germany. However, the authors of the study do not judge this for Nembro. Can you cautiously relate such figures to a country like Germany?

Drosten: Yes, I think you can do that. It is a relatively wealthy area in Italy. It is described here that the medical structure is very well developed there. But the whole thing happened surprisingly. You couldn't prepare. And yes, of course there are more intensive care beds in Germany. But the authors don't really want to juxtapose that. It is important that there is an impression in numbers that can perhaps be transferred a little. So it's not that much different in northern Italy, even if you have a lot of old people living there. But we have that too. I think it's important to discuss this because there is so much doubt, because there is still a widespread impression on social media that this disease is as harmless as normal seasonal flu and that there are no differences. You can see it yourself if the virus has only run for a few weeks in the population and then the lockdown comes - even then it is a striking increase in this period.

 

And one should not forget that, before the lockdown, that was only the rising flank of the exponential increase in the European countries. It is not that it somehow came to a standstill by itself. You can only guess that in the media, but we are seeing the first reports these days, for example from Africa. There is a good report from yesterday in the "New York Times" about the city of Kano in Nigeria. When you read that, you really realize that this is a massive outbreak that is going on there. This is probably an outbreak that naturally goes through, even if it tries to impose lockdown measures. But in a poor country in Africa it's not so easy with the hygienic conditions. There is data that is so cursory. There is no very sophisticated collection of systematic medical data.

By the way, Nigeria is not bad in comparison. Nigeria actually does it very well, but acute data in Kano is missing. In this newspaper report there are, for example, small notes such as: Testing was carried out in a hospital. 91 doctors were tested, 20 of them were virus-positive - so they currently had the virus at the time of the test. There is a small laboratory where you can test what is good, even the laboratory staff was positive in such a random test. And they have no patient contact. One can imagine that it simply circulates in the normal population. Then there was a journalist who interviewed about 100 people in his circle of acquaintances, and almost all of these 100 people said that in the past few weeks they had had cold symptoms with loss of smell and taste.

How precise such information is, that's an open question. But the impression that is transmitted is clear. And we do not know what that means in the form of mortality in an African population that is structured differently, fewer old people, many widespread diseases that we do not have in such intensity, for example worm infections that have an immunomodulatory effect. We don't know how this outbreak really shows in African populations. But we will see more reports about it in the next few weeks.

 

Komentarise takodje izvestaj o situaciji u Nigeriji.

 

Quote

Hennig: Perhaps one should pay more attention to other countries as long as the infection numbers here are at a low level?

Drosten: Yes, I do think that the media in Germany, especially television, should look more abroad. It is very valuable to include this information. As far as I know, what has happened in New York has not yet been widely reported. You have to actively look for it. Then you will find very good television contributions from German, especially public, channels. But you have to look for it. That was broadcast once and if you didn't see it then you missed it. I think that applies to many people in Germany that they don't realize that. It's different if you lived in Australia or England, for example. Due to the spread of the English-language media, the English-language press public is simply much larger. Such information arrives there. That is not the case with us - if you do not constantly read English-language newspapers in parallel.

 

o Africi

Spoiler

Hennig: Is it so, or is there any reason to suspect that this climatic effect doesn't really do much in the countries of the global south? So we've already talked about seasonality here, the virus doesn't like heat. Will that hardly help?

Drosten: When you speak of the global south, you probably mean African countries, tropical countries.

Hennig: Exactly.

Drosten: With influenza, which is always our comparison, we have less seasonality, i.e. less concentration of the incidence in a few months. That is more spread over the year. But there is still influenza, and not a little. I think with this infection it will be the case that a wave will arrive - and by the way there are measures in almost all African countries to slow this down, there is also the idea "flatten the curve". The question is always: can this be done? And there will now be more waves of infection that are less subject to temperature effects. Generally, just to have said it completely, it is also the case in tropical countries that there are also seasonal accumulations of influenza and colds in general. For example in West Africa it is the well-known Harmattan, the season when the sky is covered, where there is higher humidity and colder temperatures, that is around February, March, there are more colds.

 

Edited by wwww
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Ovo su stvari koje sam i ja pisao za nasu nabavku tih vakcina. Znaci jedina greska je bila ta sto je virus srecom na kraju bio mnogo manje opasan nego sto su inicijalno mislili.

 

Imajuci u vidu danasnju situaciju, mislim da bi bilo sjajno da danas pricamo o mogucim malverzacijama sa vakcinama i zasto ih je nabavljeno toliko kad korona ispade nesto slicno obicnom gripu.

 

Uvek je bolje "preterano" reagovati, pa da bude lazna uzbuna, nego se ponasati kao Tramp, pa da za dva meseca sahranjujes ljude po masovnim grobnicama.

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19 minutes ago, McLeod said:

Ovo su stvari koje sam i ja pisao za nasu nabavku tih vakcina. Znaci jedina greska je bila ta sto je virus srecom na kraju bio mnogo manje opasan nego sto su inicijalno mislili.

 

Imajuci u vidu danasnju situaciju, mislim da bi bilo sjajno da danas pricamo o mogucim malverzacijama sa vakcinama i zasto ih je nabavljeno toliko kad korona ispade nesto slicno obicnom gripu.

 

Uvek je bolje "preterano" reagovati, pa da bude lazna uzbuna, nego se ponasati kao Tramp, pa da za dva meseca sahranjujes ljude po masovnim grobnicama.

 

O kojoj vakcini pricas?

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25 minutes ago, ciao said:

 

O kojoj vakcini pricas?

 

Protiv svinjskog gripa.

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CHICAGO (Reuters) - Two studies in monkeys published on Wednesday offer some of the first scientific evidence that surviving COVID-19 may result in immunity from reinfection, a positive sign that vaccines under development may succeed, U.S. researchers said on Wednesday.

 

Monkeys infected with COVID-19 develop immunity in studies, a positive sign for vaccines

 

 

Quote

In one of the new studies, researchers infected nine monkeys with COVID-19, the illness caused by the novel coronavirus. After they recovered, the team exposed them to the virus again and the animals did not get sick.

The findings suggest that they “do develop natural immunity that protects against re-exposure,” said Dr. Dan Barouch, a researcher at the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research at Harvard’s Beth Israel Deaconness Medical Center in Boston, whose studies were published in the journal Science.

 

praštajte ako je bilo...dosta zanimljiva vest

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To je dobro, ali ne znamo koliko dugo traje, jos uvek. Tek kad to budemo znali bice nade.

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@Angelia

 

https://vijesti.hrt.hr/616933/umrla-pacijentica-iz-udbine-s-nizom-popratnih-dijagnoza

 

➢ Što su to imunosupresivni lijekovi? To su lijekovi koji smanjuju reakciju organizma na presađeni organ i na taj način sprječavaju njegovo odbacivanje. Obično se kombiniraju dva ili više imunosupresiva. Koji će se lijekovi primjenjivati ovisi o karakteristikama primatelja, podudarnosti davatelja i primatelja te vrsti organa koji se transplantira. Važno je napomenuti da se imunosupresivna terapija mora uzimati doživotno, premda se s vremenom doza imunosupresiva može i smanjivati. Lijekovi protiv odbacivanja omogućili su uspjeh presađivanja organa. Na žalost, oni ne djeluju samo na sprečavanje odbacivanja presađenog organa, već imaju brojne neželjene učinke na organizam. Osobito je važna smanjena otpornost na infekcije koju uzrokuju imunosupresivni lijekovi.

 

http://kbc-rijeka.hr/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/INFORMATIVNI-LETAK-TRANSPLANTACIJA-BUBREGA.pdf

 

...

 

 

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40 minutes ago, Vjekoslav said:

@Angelia

 

https://vijesti.hrt.hr/616933/umrla-pacijentica-iz-udbine-s-nizom-popratnih-dijagnoza

 

➢ Što su to imunosupresivni lijekovi? To su lijekovi koji smanjuju reakciju organizma na presađeni organ i na taj način sprječavaju njegovo odbacivanje. Obično se kombiniraju dva ili više imunosupresiva. Koji će se lijekovi primjenjivati ovisi o karakteristikama primatelja, podudarnosti davatelja i primatelja te vrsti organa koji se transplantira. Važno je napomenuti da se imunosupresivna terapija mora uzimati doživotno, premda se s vremenom doza imunosupresiva može i smanjivati. Lijekovi protiv odbacivanja omogućili su uspjeh presađivanja organa. Na žalost, oni ne djeluju samo na sprečavanje odbacivanja presađenog organa, već imaju brojne neželjene učinke na organizam. Osobito je važna smanjena otpornost na infekcije koju uzrokuju imunosupresivni lijekovi.

 

http://kbc-rijeka.hr/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/INFORMATIVNI-LETAK-TRANSPLANTACIJA-BUBREGA.pdf

 

...

 

 

Neki ljudi ne prezive transplantaciju, neki umru od komplikacija tokom operacije, to je poznat rizik.

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Oh boy

 

ajmo breee

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11 hours ago, NMX said:

Oh boy

 

ajmo breee

 

Sada idu Phase II i Phase III. Ima da se čeka

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https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.15.20103655v1

 

Differential Effects of Intervention Timing on COVID-19 Spread in the United States

Columbia University disease modelers

Lockdown Delays Cost at Least 36,000 Lives, Data Show

Even small differences in timing would have prevented the worst exponential growth, which by April had subsumed New York City, New Orleans and other major cities, researchers found.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/20/us/coronavirus-distancing-deaths.html

counterfactualMaps-Artboard_1.png

 

Levo:     Total reported deaths in the United States on May 3: 65,307                                                           -      New York City: 17,581

desno: 

Estimated deaths on May 3 if social distancing started one week earlier than it did: 29,410    -    New York City: 2,838

 

How Earlier Control Measures Could Have Saved Lives:

counterfactualChart-Artboard_1_copy.png

 

skala: 20000 mrtvih

krive (odozgo na dole):

stvarna kriva - Number of reported deaths by May 3: 65,307

srednja kriva: Estimated deaths if social distancing started one week earlier than it did in March: 29,410

najniza kriva: Estimated deaths if social distancing started two weeks earlier than it did in March: 11,253

 osenceni deo:

Range of estimates

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https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)31180-6/fulltext

Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis

Quote

Summary

Background

Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, often in combination with a second-generation macrolide, are being widely used for treatment of COVID-19, despite no conclusive evidence of their benefit. Although generally safe when used for approved indications such as autoimmune disease or malaria, the safety and benefit of these treatment regimens are poorly evaluated in COVID-19.

Methods

We did a multinational registry analysis of the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19. The registry comprised data from 671 hospitals in six continents. We included patients hospitalised between Dec 20, 2019, and April 14, 2020, with a positive laboratory finding for SARS-CoV-2. Patients who received one of the treatments of interest within 48 h of diagnosis were included in one of four treatment groups (chloroquine alone, chloroquine with a macrolide, hydroxychloroquine alone, or hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide), and patients who received none of these treatments formed the control group. Patients for whom one of the treatments of interest was initiated more than 48 h after diagnosis or while they were on mechanical ventilation, as well as patients who received remdesivir, were excluded. The main outcomes of interest were in-hospital mortality and the occurrence of de-novo ventricular arrhythmias (non-sustained or sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation).

Findings

96 032 patients (mean age 53·8 years, 46·3% women) with COVID-19 were hospitalised during the study period and met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 888 patients were in the treatment groups (1868 received chloroquine, 3783 received chloroquine with a macrolide, 3016 received hydroxychloroquine, and 6221 received hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide) and 81 144 patients were in the control group. 10 698 (11·1%) patients died in hospital. After controlling for multiple confounding factors (age, sex, race or ethnicity, body-mass index, underlying cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, diabetes, underlying lung disease, smoking, immunosuppressed condition, and baseline disease severity), when compared with mortality in the control group (9·3%), hydroxychloroquine (18·0%; hazard ratio 1·335, 95% CI 1·223–1·457), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (23·8%; 1·447, 1·368–1·531), chloroquine (16·4%; 1·365, 1·218–1·531), and chloroquine with a macrolide (22·2%; 1·368, 1·273–1·469) were each independently associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Compared with the control group (0·3%), hydroxychloroquine (6·1%; 2·369, 1·935–2·900), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (8·1%; 5·106, 4·106–5·983), chloroquine (4·3%; 3·561, 2·760–4·596), and chloroquine with a macrolide (6·5%; 4·011, 3·344–4·812) were independently associated with an increased risk of de-novo ventricular arrhythmia during hospitalisation.

Interpretation

We were unable to confirm a benefit of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, when used alone or with a macrolide, on in-hospital outcomes for COVID-19. Each of these drug regimens was associated with decreased in-hospital survival and an increased frequency of ventricular arrhythmias when used for treatment of COVID-19.
 
 

gr1.gif

 

http://www.rfi.fr/en/science-and-technology/20200523-france-coronavirus-health-minister-olivier-veran-hydroxycholoquine-chloroquine-treatment-medicine-science-study-boston

Use of chloroquine to treat Covid-19 is risky: French health minister

Quote

French health minister Olivier Véran on Saturday asked the country’s health council for advice on the use of malaria drug chloroquine against the Covid-19 virus. His remarks come after the publication of an scientific article critical of the use of the substance.

Quote

"Following the publication in The Lancet of an alarming study on the lack of efficiency and the risks of certain treatments of Covid-19, among which hydroxychloroquine, I reached out to the High Council of Public Health (HCSP) so as to analyse and propose, within 48 hours, a reevaluation of prescription regulations," French health minister Olivier Véran said in a tweet on Saturday.

 

Quote

But more and more studies have shown different conclusions. On 14 May, a French study headed by Professor Matthieu Mahévas of 84 patients did "not support the use of hydroxychloroquine in patients admitted to hospital with Covid-19 who require oxygen."

On the same day, a Chinese study of 150 Covid-19 positive patients, carried out by Professor Tang Wei of the Institute of Respiratory Diseases, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China pointed out that administration of hydroxychloroquine did not result in significantly more people showing signs of being cured.

On the contrary, Tang said that "adverse events were higher in hydroxychloroquine recipients than in non-recipients," citing diarrhea as the most common adverse effect, but not mentioning heart problems.

 

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A new study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 suggests that a century-old technique involving blood plasma transfusions from recovered patients could improve survival rates if done early enough.

The study conducted at New York's Mount Sinai Hospital was posted on the medRxiv public preprint server Friday. It compared the results of 39 COVID-19 patients who received transfusions to 39 who did not.

Preprints are studies that have not undergone the normal peer-review process required for publication in medical or scientific journals. However, during the coronavirus emergency, many researchers are releasing their results as soon as they are available.

The study found that the disease worsened in 18% of the patients who received plasma compared to 24% of those who didn't.

After 16 days, almost 13% of the plasma recipients had died, compared with more than 24% of the control patients. And 72% of the plasma recipients were discharged compared with 67% of the control group.

The report concluded that the procedure "is a potentially efficacious treatment option for patients hospitalized with COVID-19; however, these data suggest that non-intubated patients may benefit more than those requiring mechanical ventilation."

 

https://news.yahoo.com/plasma-recovered-coronavirus-patients-boosts-154257816.html

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Posted (edited)

Pis'o nam CEO, obavestavacu vas blagovremeno 🙂

 

In closing, Id like to sincerely thank you for your ongoing hard work and resilience.  The search for a COVID-19 treatment and vaccine continues at pace and Im pleased to say that weve been awarded over thirty COVID-19 vaccine and treatment trials thanks to the expertise and commitment of our business development and operations teams. We also have some exciting opportunities on other coronavirus projects with over 50 other sponsors.  I look forward to keeping you updated on progress in this area in the weeks ahead, as we continue to fulfil our mission by helping to find a solution to this pandemic.

 

 

p.s. na to se javio nJemacki Work Council:"A sto onda zaposlenima smanjujete plate?" 😄

Edited by Sunshine State
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Quote

 

What is so special about a Single Domain Antibody ?

 

It is a little-known fact that llamas, alpacas, camels, other members of the camelid family and sharks make a unique class of antibodies that allow scientists to determine the structures of otherwise impossible-to-study proteins in the body, helping them to understand how those proteins malfunction in disease and how to design new drugs that act on them.


20190517170133_93367.jpg

 

In the early 1990s, Belgium researchers accidently discovered that camels possess a unique class of antibodies. In addition to having normal antibodies, they have another unique class of antibodies naturally devoid of light chains but consisted of two heavy chains attached to variable domains (variable heavy homodimers, VHH), so called heavy- chain antibodies (HcAb). Other than camelids, HcAb has not been found in other organisms, with the curious exception of sharks and other cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), the oldest living beings with an adaptive immune system. Cartilaginous fish possess a special form of HcAb termed immunoglobulin novel antigen receptor or IgNAR. 

The VHH alone is about 12-15 kDa (4 nm long and 2.5 nm wide), much smaller than conventional antibodies, which is about 150 kDa. Typically, single-domain antibody (also known as "Nanobody®" ) is recombinant, the variable domain alone of HcAb (i.e. VHH) which is able to bind selectively to a specific antigen. Single domain antibodies are considered the smallest naturally derived antigen-binding fragments that can be isolated from a full-sized immunoglobulin.

20190624161547_81218.jpg

In spite of an evolutionary gap of 425 million years, VHH and VNAR antibosies share some convergent features that differ from those found in conventional variable domains. More notably, changes in conserved amino acids make them soluble and independently folding domains, non-canonical Cys pairs  increase their stability and diversity. Formed by fewer CDRs, the antigen-binding sites of VHH and VNAR domains are smaller than those of conventional antibodies, and are considered the smallest (12 kDa) antigen-binding domain. VHH and VNAR particularly capable of binding concave and hidden epitopes (e.g., enzyme active sites, cryptic viral epitopes, etc.) that are not accessible to conventional antibodies. Nevertheless, the reactivity of their antigen-binding site is not limited to hidden targets, and HcAbs reacting with a broad range of structurally diverse epitopes.


Advantages of Single Domain Antibodies

Nanobodies can recognize novel epitopes that conventional antibodies cannot. 

They can be expressed in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems, readily produced in single cell organisms like bacteria and yeasts, ensuring their virtually unlimited supply and consistent quality without batch-to-batch variations. 

There are many advantages of this novel class of antibodies:

 

 Smallest functional antibody unit about ~15 kDa, than conventional antibody is ~150 kDa

• Enhanced tissue penetration, can cross the blood-brain barrier

• Unique binding capacity to small cavities or clefts

• High affinity and specificity

• High solubility, great imaging agents due to rapid clearance in vivo

In contrast to conventional antibodies, Nanobodies are also has high stability to function and exist within demanding conditions, such as abnormal temperature or pH.  

 

 

Single domain antibodies also have great potential in downstream engineering (bispecific antibody, humanization). There is an increasing interest in developing single-domain antibodies for therapeutic and research uses. Nanobodies can be applied in the field of antibody-drug conjugate technologies (ADC), which uses antibodies or antibody-derived molecules to deliver highly potent anticancer agents to cancer cells. Single domain antibody takes great advantages of outstanding penetrability, they are able to cross the blood-brain barrier, and can improve bioavailability for pharmaceutical applications, which are essential to the development of antibody drugs or diagnostic tools. Therefore, the potential benefits of using single domain antibodies for both therapeutic and research applications are endless: 

  1. 20180901081507_19593.pngFaster accumulation as a therapeutic or imaging agent in tissue.
  2. 20180901081540_66098.pngHigher stability due to its smaller size.
  3. 20180901081540_66098.pngLower toxicity due to more rapid clearance of unbound antibodies.
  4. 20180901081540_66098.pngAdditional routes of administration.
  5. 20180901081540_66098.pngIncreased manufacturing production efficiency and potentially lower costs.

 

In summary, single domain antibodies can be used as potential tools for academic research, diseases diagnosis and treatment, and biotechnology development, due to the variety of their unique features.

 

 

 

 

 

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Mislim da vecina nas prati brojeve na worldometer sajtu.

Vec duze vremena primecujem da se brojevi iz izvora, i njihovi ne poklapaju. Ili da objavljuju neke cifre pre nego su objavljene zvanicno.

Razlika recimo u PA je oko 4,000 slucajeva vise na worldometer nego na drzavnom sajtu PA. Ima i razlika u broju umrlih.

To je skoro 6% razlike u broju slucajeva.

 

Samo rekoh da znate ako se oslanjate na te podatke.

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9 minutes ago, Kronostime said:

USA je prilicno tamna zona sto se tice podataka o COVID-u. :default_coffee:

Svuda je, razliciti nacini brojanja, politika, predvidjanja....

Navodim ovo za worldometer jer sam, kao verovatno i mnogi, mislila da oni barem koriste zvanicne podatke i potvrdjene.

Ovako u celom haosu imamo i razlicite izvore koji govore razlicite brojke

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21 hours ago, Angelia said:

Svuda je, razliciti nacini brojanja, politika, predvidjanja....

Navodim ovo za worldometer jer sam, kao verovatno i mnogi, mislila da oni barem koriste zvanicne podatke i potvrdjene.

Ovako u celom haosu imamo i razlicite izvore koji govore razlicite brojke

 

Worldmeter je vlasnistvo male kompanije Dadax i oni skupljaju podatke iz zvanicnih podataka i to stavljaju. Ne treba drvlje i kamenje na njih jer to ocito rade za dzabe (svi imaju pristup), ali isto tako su samo priblizni podaci. 

Ako si primetila, pored svake US drzave imas linkove koji vode na mesta odakle oni te podatke uzimaju, sto nije lako jer vecina drzava nema objedinjeno nego to rade po okruzima. Znaci desi se da se omakne greske koje i nisu neke drasticne. 

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4 minutes ago, Baby said:

 

Worldmeter je vlasnistvo male kompanije Dadax i oni skupljaju podatke iz zvanicnih podataka i to stavljaju. Ne treba drvlje i kamenje na njih jer to ocito rade za dzabe (svi imaju pristup), ali isto tako su samo priblizni podaci. 

Ako si primetila, pored svake US drzave imas linkove koji vode na mesta odakle oni te podatke uzimaju, sto nije lako jer vecina drzava nema objedinjeno nego to rade po okruzima. Znaci desi se da se omakne greske koje i nisu neke drasticne. 

Kompanija ima svoje razloge zasto to radi.

I nisam nista drvlje i kamenje, razlika od 5% i vise nije bas zanemarljiva a nisam ni proveravala ostale, jednostavno su trebali da stave upozorenje da im se podaci ne poklapaju sa zvanicnim.  Umesto toga su to zakopali u dugackom textu gde su za to krivi izvori.

PA recimo postavlja zvanicne podatke u 1.20 pm EST, a oni u 11 am imaju 20 umrlih za Philly, onda Philly objavi da imaju 10 i cifre se ne promene.

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1 hour ago, Angelia said:

Kompanija ima svoje razloge zasto to radi.

I nisam nista drvlje i kamenje, razlika od 5% i vise nije bas zanemarljiva a nisam ni proveravala ostale, jednostavno su trebali da stave upozorenje da im se podaci ne poklapaju sa zvanicnim.  Umesto toga su to zakopali u dugackom textu gde su za to krivi izvori.

PA recimo postavlja zvanicne podatke u 1.20 pm EST, a oni u 11 am imaju 20 umrlih za Philly, onda Philly objavi da imaju 10 i cifre se ne promene.

 

Ma daj bre preterujes. Ceo svet se urotio protiv Trampa. 

Ljudi vode statistiku za ceo svet, ne samo virus, i sada su odlucili da laziraju namerno da bi naudili Trampu. Svasta. 

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1 minute ago, Baby said:

 

Ma daj bre preterujes. Ceo svet se urotio protiv Trampa. 

Ljudi vode statistiku za ceo svet, ne samo virus, i sada su odlucili da laziraju namerno da bi naudili Trampu. Svasta. 

Baby, ja stvarno nemam pojma sta je tebe Tramp spopao toliko.

Dosta ljudi prati te cifre i na osnovu njih donosi zakljucke i komentarise, moja ideja je bila obavestiti ljude da cifre nisu tacne.

Odoh ja u prodavnicu - to je verovatno zato sto se ceo svet urotio protiv Trampa :smiley13: ili ti je tesko za poverovati da ljudi imaju zivot i ne misle o Trampu po ceo dan.

TDS je veliki problem....

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